The entire Muskoka River Watershed is situated on the Canadian Shield, which dates from the middle to late Precambrian Age. Soils are generally sandy and shallow in depth atop the underlying bedrock. The watershed is mainly forested, with mixed hardwood (i.e. maple, birch and oak) and coniferous (i.e. White and Red pine, spruce, tamarack and hemlock) species.
Muskoka is an area of transition from the northern boreal forest to the mixed forests in the south.
The Muskoka River Watershed contains predominantly cool and coldwater fish species. In the upper part of the watershed, several lakes and streams are considered coldwater, and support species such as Lake trout and Brook trout.
The Muskoka River Watershed is located on the Canadian Shield. The shield is characterized by very thin soil with rocky outcroppings. The thin, nutrient poor soils and surrounding environment dictates the vegetation that can grow and limits the amount of nutrients that flow to waterbodies from the watershed.
The North (Algonquin dome in Huntsville and Lake of Bays) contains mainly conifers:
The South (the barrens in Gravenhurst, Muskoka Lakes and Georgian Bay) contains mainly hardwoods:
Vegetation plays a large part in determining soil characteristics. In conifer dominated forests the soil is likely to be acidic and in hardwood forests soils are more likely to be non-acidic. Muskoka contains both of these vegetation communities.
In Ontario, there are four main regions of forest types. They are the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Boreal Forest, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Forest, and Deciduous Forest. Muskoka is located in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Forest region.
This region is a transitional zone between deciduous forests of the south and coniferous boreal forests of the north.
In this region, coniferous trees include:
Deciduous broad-leaved species include:
Some species that are more common in the boreal forest also exist in Muskoka, such as:
Organizations such as the Ontario Woodlot Association have developed resources to assist landowners who wish to explore management options for their forests, including:
Wetlands are a crucial part of a watershed. The primary function of wetlands include:
They all play a vital role in the ecology of the Muskoka River Watershed. Some of the common wildlife species you might spot in Muskoka include:
The life cycle of many Muskoka wildlife species is directly related to the river (including its tributaries and lakes) and the land-water shoreline interface (to provide habitat and food sources).
An example of this complex linkage would be the wetland areas found along the shorelines of rivers and lakes. Some of the animals dependent on these wetlands include:
In the Muskoka River Watershed you are most likely to find cool and coldwater fish species.
In the cold water lakes and streams in the upper part of the watershed you may find:
The large lakes in the watershed are fairly deep (50+ m) and cold, and are sustainable for communities of:
Much of the lower part of the watershed (with the exclusion of the large lakes) is considered coolwater habitat, sustaining communities of:
Muskoka has many excellent deep coldwater lakes that sustain natural Lake trout populations. Many lakes also benefit from the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) stocking program. The following lakes in Muskoka are managed as Lake trout lakes by the MNR:
|Lake||Area Municipality||Lake||Area Municipality|
|Bella||Lake of Bays||Lake of Bays||Lake of Bays|
|Blue Chalk||Lake of Bays||Muskoka||Muskoka Lakes|
|Bonnie||Bracebridge||Oxbow||Lake of Bays|
|Buck||Lake of Bays||Peninsula||Lake of Bays|
|Camp||Lake of Bays||Pine||Bracebridge|
|Cardwell (Long)||Muskoka Lakes||Rebecca||Lake of Bays|
|Clear||Bracebridge||Red Chalk||Lake of Bays|
|Dotty||Lake of Bays||Seventeen Mile||Lake of Bays|
|Eighteen Mile||Lake of Bays||Shoe||Lake of Bays|
|Fifteen Mile||Lake of Bays||Solitaire||Lake of Bays|
|Harp||Huntsville||South Tasso||Lake of Bays|
|Jerry||Lake of Bays||Vernon||Huntsville|
|Joseph||Muskoka Lakes||Young||Muskoka Lakes|